Leptospirosis, is an animal inherited disease. It can infect many animals such as dogs, rats, cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, domestic pets, etc., but is more common in mice Which is the nest source Most of the time, the sensitive animals are young mammals. Or an animal that has never been immune from its mother before Outbreaks are often found in October and November due to the rainy season and the cold water.
Leptospirosis It is caused by a spirochete infection called Leptospira interrogans, which has more than 200 serovars in serovars. In the ureter of many animals With rats as the most important source of disease nest Some serovars are specific to certain animals. The virus can survive for several months after being excreted in urine from infected animals. Other animals that are the source of the disease are pigs, cattle, and raccoon dogs, where animals may be asymptomatic but can release the infection for weeks or perhaps throughout the life of the animal. From a survey in 1974 Founded in 1997 by the National Institute of Animal Health. Immunity was found in buffalo 31%, cattle 28.25%, goat, sheep 27.35%, pig 2.15%.
Signs and symptoms
The signs and symptoms of leptospirosis can range from mild to severe to life. Over 90% of people with symptoms have mild symptoms and are often non-yellow. Severe leptospirosis was found in 5-10% of people with anicteric leptospirosis in two phases.
Period of infection in the blood (leptospiremic phase) This phase has flu-like symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting and muscle pain. Which in leptospirosis is characterized by Pain in the calf, back and abdomen Most patients have a headache. Especially the front or back of the eye socket Other symptoms that may be seen include sore throat, cough, chest pain, rash, confusion, coughing up blood. Symptoms that may be detected include conjunctivitis, enlarged lymph nodes, red throat, muscle tenderness, enlarged spleen, and mild jaundice. Symptoms at this stage will go away on their own within one week, the asymptomatic phase lasts 1-3 days before entering the second phase.
Period of infection in the urine (leptospiruric phase) This phase results from the body’s immune reaction. The signs and symptoms are more specific and less severe than in the early stages. A key feature of this disease is that more than 15% of patients experience signs and symptoms of aseptic meningitis, most commonly in children. They may heal on their own in a matter of days, or may last for weeks. Other complications, such as iritis, retinal inflammation, often follow the initial symptoms for several months. And persist for years with severe leptospirosis
Severe leptospirosis Or Wail syndrome (Weil’s Syndrome). This syndrome has a mortality rate of approximately 5-15%. It is especially common in serovar infections. Iterohemorragiae / Copenhegenai (icterohaemorrhagiae / copenhageni) early symptoms were not different from non-yellow leptospirosis. But there are no clear features that are divided into two terms. Usually severe symptoms 4-9 days after the onset of symptoms include:
Jaundice seen in Vail syndrome It looks very yellow and almost orange when observed through the skin. Enlarged liver is often found with tenderness. About 20% of infected people also have an enlarged spleen. There are few deaths from liver failure.
Acute renal failure Lung symptoms such as coughing with bloody sputum, chest pain, shortness of breath and respiratory failure.
Disorders of the blood coagulation system They range from minor symptoms such as nosebleeds, blood blotches on the skin. To severe symptoms such as gastrointestinal bleeding Bleeding in the cortical cavity, etc. Other symptoms include muscle breakdown. Hemolysis Pericarditis Myocarditis Severe pancreatitis Conditions of multiple organ failure, etc.
Leptospirosis Very little contact from person to person It is mainly transmitted by direct contact with urine, blood or tissues of infected animals. Or contact with an environment that is contaminated with bacteria such as
Eating food or water contaminated with bacteria Inhalation of vapors, urine, or fluids contaminated with bacteria.
Enter through various mucous membranes such as eyes and mouth. Radiation through the skin following the wound and scratch
Radiation through normal skin that is wet from prolonged immersion.
The incubation period takes 1-2 weeks, but can last up to 3 weeks. (leptospiremic phase), which will begin to show symptoms and most will disappear in 1 week, after another 1-3 days will be in the urine infection stage. (leptospiruric phase) Some patients show symptoms again, about 5-10% of those infected will have severe symptoms of leptospirosis.
Leptospirosis is spread and occurs easily in the late rainy season. It is most common during the months of October – November because the soil is wet and there is water that is conducive to the growth and accumulation of the bacteria in nature This disease can be found in many provinces that grow rice. Areas to swim Or water reservoirs that carry abundant disease vectors May include large ponds
Certain population groups are at high risk of disease, including:
Veterinarians working in agriculture, livestock, fishery
Recreation and water sports such as swimming, canoeing, windsurfing, waterskiing, triathlon, etc.
Prevention should begin with providing health education to vulnerable groups, which can be prevented as follows:
Always wear protective clothing such as boots, gloves, socks, clothing.
Avoid contact with carrier animals. Of the aforementioned disease
Avoid swimming that may be contaminated with germs.
Avoid contact with the urine of cattle, guinea pigs and water sources that are suspected to be contaminated. Avoid foods that are left overnight. Without a concealed container, etc.
Avoid working in water or having to wade through water. Wading in the mud for a long time.
Take a shower and cleanse your body as soon as possible if immersed or immersed in a water suspected to be contaminated.
Leptospirosis can be treated with antibiotics. The drug should be administered as soon as possible or not more than 4 days after the slowdown. The duration of therapy is at least 7 days, with the type of antibiotic different depending on the severity of symptoms:
|Doxycycline, 100 mg orally twice a day or
Ampicillin (ampicillin), 500-750 mg intravenously 4 times a day, or
Amoxicillin (amoxicillin), 500 mg orally 4 times a day
|Moderate to severe
|Penicillin G, 1.5 million units intravenously 4 times a day, or
Ampicillin (ampicillin), 1 gram intravenously 4 times a day, or
Amoxicillin (amoxicillin), 1 g orally 4 times a day, or
Erythromycin (erythromycin), 500 mg orally 4 times a day
There are also new drugs in the cephalosporins. Many others that are able to resist leptospirosis in the laboratory But there is no definite clinical outcome.